Wednesday, 11 April 2012

Atoms-Ionic Bonding

Atoms-Ionic Bonding
There are two main types of bonding, Ionic and Covalent bonding.  When two or more atoms bond they form a compound. The difference between a compound and a mixture is that a compound is chemically bonded whereas a mixture isn’t chemically bonded.  

In Atoms-Introduction we briefly touched about ions. Ions are charged particles.  In ionic bonding, atoms lose or gain electrons to form ions. These ions are then strongly attracted because of the attraction of opposite charges positive and negative. Atoms react because they want a full outer shell of electrons. A common example of ionic bonding is the reaction of sodium and chlorine.  Sodium (Na) has an Atomic number of 11 meaning it has eleven electrons. This means that there is one electron on the outer shell. Chlorine (Cl) has an Atomic number of 17 meaning it has seventeen electrons.  This means that it has seven electrons on the outer shell needing one more to have a full outer shell.  The Sodium atom gives its outer electron to the Chlorine atom. The Sodium atom becomes Na+   ion because there are more protons (positive particles) then electrons (negative particle).  The Chlorine atom has gained an electron making it a Cl- ion because there are more electrons than protons. The ions bond because of the attraction between the charges. 

The ionic compounds formed have giant ionic lattices. The ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement.  Furthermore there is a strong intermolecular force in the ionic compound.  This strong intermolecular force gives ionic compounds high melting and boiling points.  When ionic compounds are molten or dissolved in water they will carry electric current because the ions are free to move.  However when ionic compounds are solid they can’t conduct electricity because the ions aren’t free to move.  

Wednesday, 28 March 2012


Atoms are the building blocks of matter. They are everywhere from your shoes to the water that you drink. They are very small, so small that they are not visible to the naked eye.  Atoms are made out of three main particles: Neutrons, Protons and Electrons.  These particles are very important and give the atom its properties.

In an atom you have a nucleus which consists of protons and neutrons. Around the nucleus you have electrons which whizz around the nucleus. The electrons are arranged in shells or energy levels around the Nucleus. For the first 20 elements the lowest energy levels are filled first. Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell. The first shell has 2 electrons, the second shell has 8 electrons and the third shell has 8 electrons.

Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutrons have a neutral charge. In an atom there is the same amount of protons as electrons meaning that the overall charge of the atom is neutral. There are always one or two more neutrons then protons in an Atom. If the atom has a charge it is known as an ion. If there are more protons(positively charged) then electrons then the atom is a positive ion but if there are more electrons(negatively charged) then protons then the atom is a negative ion.  

Monday, 26 March 2012

Tuesday, 20 March 2012

The Importance of Protein

Protein is essential for humans. It repairs your muscles and is essential for bodily functions. There are many types of proteins e.g. Omega 6 and omega 9. They are both similar but are different.  Proteins are even more important for Body Builders because whenever a body builder works out they tear their muscles and when they rest, the proteins re-build the muscle fibres bigger and stronger. However protein malnutrition leads to the condition known as kwashiorkor. Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss of muscle mass, decreased immunity, weakening of the heart and respiratory system, and death. 

Many people complain that being a vegetarian or vegan will lead you in to having a lack of protein in your diet. However there are a lot vegetarian options which are protein rich. A common example is Soya beans. Flax Seeds are a good vegetarian source of Omega 6(essential fatty acids) an alternative to fish. An advantage of vegetarian protein sources is that they are very low in saturated fats unlike other meat sources.  Vegetarians and Vegans need to have a wide variety of proteins to account for meat.  

The Great Depression

The Great Depression was an iconic moment in the American History. Having a capitalist economy system means that there will be a continuous cycle of Boom and Bust meaning that times of prosperity is followed up by recession. This is visible in the Great Depression. In the 1920s America was living in prosperity as they were relishing the affects of mass-production and other factors. Many ordinary people were buying shares because there was a bull market (Share prices were rising). Many people were taking out loans and were confident about buying shares because they thought it will be a full proof plan to get rich quick.  However when the Wall Street crash happened many people were devastated because people couldn’t pay back their loans and Banks went bankrupt. This all had a negative effect on the US Economy and leaving it to spiral down. 

The Depression had left many people unemployed and struggling to live. Businesses and Banks had also been affected by Depression in a negative way.  A new president had come to power called Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR). He was very quick to act on the Depression. He spent a lot of money and gave the federal government more power compared to the previous presidents. He created a lot of “Alphabet Agencies “which were aimed to provide Relief, Recovery, and Reform. One of their main successes was how they tackled unemployment. Unemployment had dramatically dropped by the end of FDR’s reign.  

However America only came out of The Depression due to World War 2. The countries industry had to be mobilised and prepared so it could give out an active output. New war goods were being produced which kick started businesses and allowing them to employ more people.  World War Two was ultimately the main cause which led America out of Depression and back into prosperity.

Sunday, 18 March 2012

Understanding Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy is the term used for when energy is produced by a process called Nuclear fission (do not get confused between Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion). Nuclear Fission involves the splitting of atoms. In Nuclear power plants Uranium is the common element that is used, when it is splitted it realises a lot of energy which is then used to heat water which then produces steam. This steam is then used to turn a turbine which then generates electricity.  Nuclear energy is a good alternative for Fossil Fuels because it is a reliable source of energy and it doesn’t release any pollutant gases in the atmosphere but it does have its disadvantages. A Nuclear power plant takes the longest and is the most expensive to build. Furthermore it produces nuclear waste which is radioactive.Overall Nuclear Energy has a lot of potential and its producing energy capabilities outweigh its cons.